Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation)
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Background—The WISE study (Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) was a prospective cohort study of 936 clinically stable symptomatic women who underwent coronary angiography to evaluate symptoms and signs of ischemia. Long-term mortality data for such women are limited.
Methods and Results—Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as ≥50% stenosis on angiography by core laboratory. We conducted a National Death Index search to assess the mortality of women who were alive at their final WISE contact date. Death certificates were obtained. All deaths were adjudicated as cardiovascular or noncardiovascular by a panel of WISE cardiologists masked to angiographic data. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify significant independent predictors of mortality. At baseline, mean age was 58±12 years; 176 (19%) were non-white, primarily black; 25% had a history of diabetes mellitus, 59% hypertension, 55% dyslipidemia, and 59% had a body mass index ≥30. During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range, 0.2–11.5 years), a total of 184 (20%) died. Of these, 115 (62%) were cardiovascular deaths; 31% of all cardiovascular deaths occurred in women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis). Independent predictors of mortality were obstructive CAD, age, baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, history of smoking, elevated triglycerides, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Conclusions—Among women referred for coronary angiography for signs and symptoms of ischemia, 1 in 5 died from predominantly cardiac pathogeneses within 9 years of angiographic evaluation. A majority of the factors contributing to the risk of death seem to be modifiable by existing therapies. Of note, 1 in 3 of the deaths in this cohort occurred in women without obstructive CAD, a condition often considered benign and without guideline-recommended treatments. Clinical trials are needed to provide treatment guidance for the group without obstructive CAD.
- Received April 21, 2017.
- Accepted September 18, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.