Place of Residence and Outcomes of Patients With Heart Failure
Analysis From the Telemonitoring to Improve Heart Failure Outcomes Trial
Background—Recent studies show an association between neighborhood-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and outcomes for patients with heart failure. We do not know whether neighborhood SES has a primary effect or is a marker for individual SES.
Methods and Results—We used the data from participants of the Telemonitoring to Improve Heart Failure Outcomes (Tele-HF) trial, recruited from 33 US internal medicine and cardiology practices and examined the association between neighborhood SES and outcomes of patients with heart failure. We used census tracts as proxies for neighborhoods and constructed summary SES scores that included information about wealth and income, education, and occupation. The primary end points were readmission and all-cause mortality at 6 months. We conducted patient interviews and medical chart reviews to obtain demographic information, clinical factors, therapies, and individual SES. We included 1557 patients: 524, 516, and 517 from low, medium, and high SES neighborhoods, respectively (mean age, 61.1±15.2 years; 42.2% women).Overall, 745 patients (47.8%) had ≥1 readmission and 179 patients (11.5%) died. When compared with patients in high SES neighborhoods, those living in low-SES neighborhoods were more likely to be readmitted (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.82), but the mortality rates were not significantly different (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–1.18). The results were consistent after multivariable adjustments for individual demographics, clinical factors, and individual SES.
Conclusions—Among patients with heart failure, neighborhood SES was significantly associated with 6-month all-cause readmission even after adjusting for other patient-level factors, including individual SES. Greater number of events and longer follow-up is required to ascertain the potential effect of neighborhood SES on mortality.
- Received October 18, 2013.
- Accepted June 24, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.