Frequent Utilization of the Emergency Department for Acute Heart Failure Syndrome
A Population-Based Study
Background—Although most research on patients with acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) has focused on readmissions, this may provide an incomplete picture of health-care utilization. We examined the proportion and characteristics of patients with frequent emergency department (ED) visits for AHFS and associated health-care utilization.
Methods and Results—A retrospective cohort study of adults with at least 1 ED visit for AHFS between 2010 and 2011 was performed, derived from population-based multipayer data of state ED and inpatient databases for 2 large and diverse states, California and Florida. The analytic sample comprised 113 033 patients with 175 491 ED visits for AHFS. During the 1-year follow-up period, 30.8% of patients had ≥2 (frequent) visits, accounting for 55.4% (95% confidence interval, 55.2–55.5%) of all ED visits for AHFS. In the multivariable model, significant predictors of frequent ED visits were non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, Medicaid insurance, and lower median household income (all P<0.001). At the visit level, patients with frequent ED visits accounted for 55.0% (95% confidence interval, 54.8–5.3%) of all AHFS hospitalizations via ED. Total charges for AHFS were $3.08 billion (95% confidence interval, $3.03–3.14 billion) in Florida alone; patients with frequent ED visits accounted for 53.3% of total charges (95% confidence interval, 53.2–53.3%).
Conclusions—In this large cohort study, we found that one third (31%) of ED patients with AHFS had frequent ED visits for this condition and that minority race/ethnicity and lower socioeconomic status were associated with frequent ED visits. Individuals with frequent ED visits accounted for the majority of ED visits, hospitalizations, and hospital charges.
- Received February 26, 2014.
- Accepted July 14, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.