Table 2. Time Spent in EMS Transport

CovariatesElapsed Time, Minutes
Segment 1: Response (SE)Segment 2: On-Scene (SE)Segment 3: Transport (SE)Total: EMS Depot to Hospital (SE)
All estimates are adjusted for patient vital statistics, including blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate. White race and male are reference categories. Continuous variables were centered on their mean value. Coefficients on neighborhood-level covariates represent the change in outcome per 1 SD from the mean. FPL indicates federal poverty level.
*P<0.001;
P<0.05;
P<0.01.
Distance
    EMS Depot to scene0.92 (0.11)*1.33 (0.34)*
    Scene to hospital1.21 (0.03)*1.33 (0.05)*
Time
    Rush hour, morning0.40 (0.17)−0.15 (0.35)0.57 (0.48)
    Rush hour, evening0.01 (0.17)1.37 (0.34)*2.01 (0.50)*
    Weekday0.04 (0.11)0.33 (0.23)0.31 (0.23)0.56 (0.33)
Patient characteristics
    Black−0.01 (0.11)−0.25 (0.24)0.38 (0.24)0.08 (0.34)
    Latin/Hispanic0.65 (0.17)*−0.60 (0.35)−0.05 (0.33)0.10 (0.48)
    Asian/Pacific Islander−0.95 (0.32)2.76 (0.67)*−0.97 (0.64)2.88 (0.91)
    Native American−0.48 (0.29)2.36 (0.61)*1.17 (0.58)3.03 (0.84)*
    Other race (not white/other)−1.05 (0.35)−0.25 (0.78)−0.37 (0.79)−1.72 (1.16)
    Unknown race−0.40 (0.22)3.44 (0.48)*0.52 (0.49)0.03 (0.01)*
    Age, years−0.01 (0.00)0.03 (0.01)*0.01 (0.01)0.03 (0.01)
    Female−0.23 (0.10)−1.51 (0.20)*0.57 (0.20)−2.30 (0.28)*
Neighborhood characteristics
    Population density, ×1000 residents/square mile−0.10 (0.05)0.27 (0.11)−0.07 (0.10)0.26 (0.15)
    Race, % white0.02 (0.07)0.68 (0.16)*−0.45 (0.16)0.36 (0.22)
    Birthplace, % foreign-born−0.01 (0.06)0.16 (0.12)−0.16 (0.11)0.01 (0.17)
    Income, % households <200% FPL0.18 (0.07)−0.21 (0.15)−0.18 (0.15)−0.10 (0.21)