Table 3. Odds of Being Delayed in EMS Care

CovariatesOdds of Delay (95% CI)
Delay was defined as >15 minutes beyond the median elapsed time. All estimates are adjusted for patient vital statistics, including blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate. White race and male are reference categories. Continuous variables were centered on their mean value. Coefficients on neighborhood-level covariates represent the change in outcome per 1 SD from the mean. FPL indicates federal poverty level.
Distance characteristics
    EMS depot to scene1.26 (1.09–1.46)
    Scene to hospital1.22 (1.20–1.25)
    Bypass1.81 (1.53–2.15)
Time characteristics
    Rush hour, morning1.18 (0.93–1.49)
    Rush hour, evening1.97 (1.59–2.43)
    Weekday1.04 (0.87–1.24)
Patient characteristics
    Black1.15 (0.97–1.35)
    Latin/Hispanic1.02 (0.81–1.31)
    Asian/Pacific Islander1.89 (1.29–2.78)
    Native American1.60 (1.11–2.29)
    Other race (not white/other)0.35 (0.15–0.79)
    Unknown race1.74 (1.29–2.35)
    Age, years1.00 (1.00–1.01)
    Female1.52 (1.32–1.74)
Neighborhood characteristics
    Population density, ×1000 residents/square mile1.11 (1.03–1.19)
    Race, % white1.16 (1.04–1.29)
    Birthplace, % foreign-born0.95 (0.88–1.04)
    Income, % households <200% FPL1.04 (0.93–1.15)