Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Study Patients

Characteristicsn=5099
Age, y66±10
Age >75 y, n (%)1163 (23)
Men, n (%)5055 (99)
Body mass index, kg/m229.4±5.5
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)1607 (32)
Hypertension, n (%)2494 (49)
Current smoker, n (%)1036 (20)
COPD, n (%)1188 (23)
Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)1121 (22)
Peripheral vascular disease, n (%)1697 (33)
Cardiopulmonary bypass time, min135±49
Prior heart surgery, n (%)453 (9)
Previous MI, n (%)2317 (45)
NYHA class III or IV, n (%)2166 (43)
LVEF <0.55, n (%)2477 (49)
Dependent functional status, n (%)842 (17)
Serum hemoglobin, g/dL13.6±1.7
Elective surgery, n (%)4376 (86)
Serum creatinine, mg/dL1.26±0.65
  • COPD indicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction; and NYHA, New York Heart Association.