Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Patients With or Without Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus (n=633)Non–Diabetes Mellitus (n=1075)P Value
Demographics
 Age, y65.4 (59.7, 71.3)65.2 (58.7, 72.5)0.784
 Women119 (19%)180 (17%)0.280
 Minority (Hispanic or non-white)68 (11%)88 (8%)0.077
 BMI, kg/m231.8 (28.0, 36.0)28.8 (25.9, 32.3)<0.001
History
 Time from qualifying MI to randomization, y*4.5 (1.5, 9.2)4.6 (1.8, 9.2)0.467
 Anterior MI239 (38%)435 (40%)0.269
 Congestive heart failure145 (23%)162 (15%)<0.001
 Valvular heart disease68 (11%)107 (10%)0.570
 Stroke51 (8%)60 (6%)0.045
 Peripheral vascular disease136 (22%)132 (12%)<0.001
 Hypertension494 (78%)675 (63%)<0.001
 Hypercholesterolemia528 (85%)842 (80%)0.013
 Atrial fibrillation85 (14%)110 (11%)0.041
 Former cigarette smoker354 (56%)601 (56%)0.994
Coronary revascularization
 CABG313 (49%)461 (43%)0.008
 PCI353 (56%)654 (61%)0.040
 Either CABG or PCI515 (81%)899 (84%)0.230
Presenting characteristics
 Blood pressure
  Systolic130 (120, 140)130 (118, 140)0.094
  Diastolic74 (68, 80)77 (70, 81)0.001
Concomitant medications
 Aspirin531 (84%)896 (83%)0.772
 β-Blocker477 (75%)749 (70%)0.012
 Statin479 (76%)769 (72%)0.063
 ACEi or ARB460 (73%)624 (58%)<0.001
 Clopidogrel161 (27%)264 (25%)0.642
 Warfarin65 (11%)83 (8%)0.070
 Aspirin, warfarin, or clopidogrel582 (92%)970 (91%)0.202
 Diabetes mellitus medication
  Insulin160 (26%)0 (0%)<0.001
  Oral hypoglycemic380 (61%)0 (0%)<0.001
 Multivitamin242 (40%)473 (45%)0.026
 Other vitamins/minerals292 (47%)560 (53%)0.020
 Herbal products190 (31%)370 (36%)0.088
Laboratory examinations
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L7.3 (6, 9)5.4 (5, 5.8)<0.001
 Creatinine, μmol/L97.2 (79.6, 114.9)97.2 (79.6, 106.1)0.030
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.2 (3.6, 5)4.3 (3.7, 5.1)0.047
 HDL, mmol/L1.1 (0.9, 1.2)1.1 (0.9, 1.3)<0.001
 LDL, mmol/L2.1 (1.6, 2.9)2.3 (1.8, 3)<0.001
 Triglycerides, mmol/L1.7 (1.2, 2.6)1.5 (1, 2.1)<0.001
  • ACEi indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MI, myocardial infarction; and PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.

  • * Median, 25th and 75th percentiles are reported for all continuous variables. To convert to mg/dL, divide by: fasting glucose (0.0555), creatinine (76.26), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL (0.0259), triglycerides (0.0113).