Table 3.

Mean Utility Values by Participant Characteristics*

Characteristicn1 Pill Daily2 Pills Daily1 Pill Twice Daily
MeanP ValueMeanP ValueMeanP Value
Age, y
 30–505050.992<0.0010.993<0.0010.993<0.001
 51–643660.9900.9900.990
 ≥651290.9780.9810.981
Sex
 Female5390.9910.00610.9910.01280.9910.0091
 Male4610.9880.9900.990
Race
 Black1590.9890.01290.9890.03830.9880.0255
 White6290.9900.9910.991
 Other2120.9880.9900.990
Education level
 <College degree2840.9860.18820.9880.06410.9890.0714
 College or graduate degree7160.9910.9910.991
Income
 <$25 0002240.9850.22670.9870.08920.9870.1387
 $25 000–$75 0005160.9900.9910.991
 >$75 0002600.9940.9930.992
Health rating
 <Very good6210.9900.07620.9910.16340.9910.0935
 ≥Very good3790.9890.9890.989
Numeracy level
 0 correct2020.9870.00100.9870.00040.9880.0002
 1 correct2880.9880.9900.990
 2 correct5100.9920.9920.992
Literacy level§
 Inadequate2840.9930.98570.9940.51720.9940.8026
 Adequate7160.9880.9890.989
Difficulty obtaining pills
 Not difficult5640.9910.00030.9910.00060.9910.0003
 Neutral1360.9870.9900.989
 Difficult910.9850.9890.989
Difficulty paying for pills
 Not difficult3960.9890.14330.9890.34140.9900.4900
 Neutral1900.9940.9940.993
 Difficult910.9860.9900.990
No. of times pills taken per day
 <25440.9900.50060.9900.58460.9900.9093
 ≥24560.9900.9910.991
No. of pills taken per day
 02090.9910.00080.9900.00090.9900.0004
 1990.9900.9900.989
 21530.9930.9930.993
 3+5390.9880.9900.990
  • * Utilities derived using time trade-off technique.

  • P values based on 1-way analysis of variance.

  • Based on number of answers correct from numeracy screener.

  • § Based on response to single-question literacy screener.