Table 3.

Measures of Difference in the Age-Standardized Heart Failure Hospitalization Rate by Sex and Race/Ethnicity From the National Inpatient Sample

200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013P trend
Men*
 Ratio1.20 (1.19–1.20)1.21 (1.21–1.22)1.26 (1.26–1.27)1.31 (1.31–1.32)1.33 (1.33–1.34)1.34 (1.33–1.34)1.35 (1.35–1.36)1.37 (1.37–1.38)1.37 (1.37–1.38)1.34 (1.34–1.34)1.36 (1.35–1.36)1.39 (1.38–1.39)0.002
 Excess95.49 (93.43–97.55)105.70 (103.64–107.76)123.58 (121.56–125.60)138.93 (136.98–140.88)144.34 (142.41–146.27)133.12 (131.30–134.94)134.54 (132.76–136.32)138.41 (136.67–140.15)129.14 (127.47–130.81)117.88 (116.24–119.52)113.93 (112.37–115.49)120.32 (118.79–121.85)0.870
Men
 Black
  Ratio2.18 (2.17–2.18)2.19 (2.18–2.20)2.38 (2.38–2.39)1.85 (1.84–1.86)2.35 (2.34–2.36)2.57 (2.57–2.58)2.26 (2.25–2.26)2.28 (2.27–2.29)2.63 (2.62–2.64)2.42 (2.41–2.43)2.33 (2.32–2.33)2.29 (2.28–2.29)0.141
  Excess596.54 (588.61–604.47)614.94 (606.96–622.92)709.00 (700.74–717.26)445.70 (438.48–452.92)669.43 (661.58–677.28)699.33 (691.03–707.03)568.94 (561.72–576.16)567.70 (560.68–574.72)651.15 (644.21–658.09)564.05 (557.51–570.59)499.05 (492.93–505.17)485.66 (479.69–491.63)0.112
 Hispanic
  Ratio1.32 (1.31–1.33)1.62 (1.61–1.63)1.30 (1.29–1.32)0.95 (0.94–0.96)1.33 (1.32–1.34)1.20 (1.19–1.22)1.02 (1.00–1.03)1.08 (1.07–1.09)1.15 (1.14–1.16)1.12 (1.11–1.13)1.01 (1.00–1.02)1.04 (1.03–1.05)0.047
  Excess161.36 (153.68–169.04)319.51 (311.18–327.84)155.82 (148.67–162.97)−24.23 (−29.312 to −19.14)163.87 (157.14–170.60)90.94 (85.17–96.71)6.81 (1.53–12.09)35.29 (30.06–40.52)58.86 (53.63–64.09)48.19 (43.14–53.24)3.03 (−1.48 to 7.54)14.84 (10.39–19.29)0.047
 Asian/PI
  Ratio0.73 (0.71–0.75)0.72 (0.70–0.75)0.65 (0.63–0.67)0.49 (0.46–0.51)0.57 (0.55–0.59)0.64 (0.61–0.66)0.57 (0.55–0.59)0.56 (0.53–0.58)0.61 (0.59–0.63)0.49 (0.46–0.51)0.55 (0.53–0.57)0.57 (0.55–0.59)0.040
  Excess−136.39 (−144.95 to −127.83)−142.47 (−150.68 to −134.26)−178.65 (−186.13 to −171.17)−268.88 (−275.19 to −262.57)−213.33 (−219.89 to −206.77)−161.84 (−168.09 to −155.59)−193.68 (−199.47 to −187.89)−196.91 (−202.41 to −191.41)−155.95 (−161.40 to −150.50)−204.26 (−208.93 to −199.59)−169.42 (−174.10 to −164.74)−162.26 (−166.88 to −157.64)0.528
Women
 Black
  Ratio2.46 (2.46–2.47)2.40 (2.40–2.41)2.52 (2.52–2.53)1.98 (1.97–1.98)2.52 (2.51–2.53)2.64 (2.64–2.65)2.36 (2.35–2.36)2.41 (2.41–2.42)2.77 (2.76–2.77)2.59 (2.58–2.59)2.45 (2.45–2.46)2.40 (2.40–2.41)0.725
  Excess593.02 (587.01–599.03)574.91 (568.98–580.84)595.38 (589.53–601.23)376.89 (371.77–382.01)539.86 (534.41–545.31)529.97 (524.72–535.22)440.05 (435.11–444.99)439.02 (434.18–443.86)494.92 (490.04–499.80)454.93 (450.20–459.66)393.16 (388.74–397.58)373.84 (369.56–378.12)0.015
 Hispanic
  Ratio1.55 (1.54–1.56)1.81 (1.80–1.82)1.51 (1.50–1.52)2.13 (2.12–2.14)1.60 (1.59–1.60)1.39 (1.38–1.40)1.16 (1.15–1.17)1.25 (1.24–1.26)1.28 (1.27–1.29)1.23 (1.22–1.24)1.09 (1.08–1.10)1.08 (1.07–1.09)0.004
  Excess223.74 (217.58–229.90)332.72 (326.19–339.25)200.71 (195.04–206.38)438.38 (430.12–446.64)211.29 (206.05–216.53)124.81 (120.29–129.33)51.73 (47.65–55.81)76.85 (72.81–80.89)77.73 (72.81–80.89)66.96 (63.16–70.76)24.43 (21.06–27.80)22.15 (18.89–25.41)0.003
 Asian/PI
  Ratio0.76 (0.74–0.78)0.75 (0.73–0.77)0.74 (0.72–0.76)0.52 (0.50–0.54)0.68 (0.66–0.70)0.73 (0.71–0.75)0.67 (0.64–0.69)0.63 (0.61–0.65)0.69 (0.67–0.71)0.52 (0.49–0.54)0.58 (0.56–0.60)0.57 (0.55–0.59)0.021
  Excess−96.39 (−102.94 to −89.84)−101.64 (−107.97 to −95.31)−103.22 (−109.11 to −97.33)−185.83 (−190.58 to −181.08)−113.00 (−118.05 to −107.95)−87.76 (−92.55 to −82.97)−108.62 (−113.10 to −104.14)−113.85 (−118.02 to −109.68)−87.02 (−91.16 to −82.88)−138.21 (−141.75 to −134.67)−113.38 (−116.87 to −109.89)−114.14 (−117.46 to −110.82)0.199
  • Values are presented as ratios or excess number of admissions per 100 000. 95% CIs in parentheses. Ratio: ratio of age-standardized hospitalization rate over reference. Excess: difference in age-standardized hospitalization between subgroup and reference. CI indicates confidence interval; and PI, Pacific Islander.

  • * Reference group is female.

  • Reference group is white.