Table 1.

Subjects’ Characteristics by Food Desert Status

TotalFood DesertNon–food DesertP Value
Sample, n14211871234
Age, y49.4±10.249.1±8.849.4±10.50.68
Male sex, %38.538.537.50.80
Black, %36.651.934<0.001
Education (% distribution)<0.001
 High school graduate or less1122.89.8
 Some college20.133.319.3
 College graduate63.743.970.9
Income (% distribution)<0.001
 ≤ $25 00011.222.310.8
 $25 000–$50 00016.227.416.2
 $50 000–$75 00015.517.717.2
 >$75 00047.932.655.8
Hypertension34.547.632.4<0.001
Diabetes mellitus8.911.38.60.22
Hyperlipidemia51.454.351.50.47
Heart disease3.45.53.20.13
Smoking13.321.912.4<0.001
Medication use, %
 Hypertension treatment21.435.822.2<0.001
 Lipid treatment51.414.616.60.52
Metabolic syndrome27.230.6280.46
BMI, mean, kg/m228.9±730.6±828.6±7<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg121.4±17125.9±21120.6±16<0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL91.7±2294.8±3391.2±200.042
Total cholesterol, mg/dL196±38199.5±42196.3±380.29
LDL114.5±33118.3±37.1113.9±330.1
HDL60.8±1859.1±16.561.3±180.12
Triglyceride109.2±63113.1±62.5108.1±640.32
Cardiovascular risk estimation
 ASCVD (IQR)3.0 (1.2–6.6)4.1 (1.7–7.3)2.8 (1.1–6.4)0.007
Inflammatory markers
 Hs-CRP mg/L (IQR)1.6 (0.5–3.8)2.2 (0.9–4.5)1.5 (0.5–3.7)0.014
 Hs-CRP >2 mg/L, %42.752.941.60.005
Oxidative stress markers, µmol/L
 Glutathione1.65±0.631.51±0.581.67±0.640.003
 Cystine84.0±18.585.2±16.683.9±18.80.41
Vascular function
 Pulse wave velocity, m/s7.33±1.527.50±1.797.30±1.480.18
 Augmentation index at 75 bpm21.29±10.723.09±11.321.00±10.60.015
  • Values shown are mean±SDs or number (%) for normally distributed variables or median (IQR) for non-normally distributed variables. Bold values indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05). ASCVD indicates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adults; BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IQR, interquartile range; and LDL, low-density lipoprotein.