Table 3.

Subjects’ Characteristics by Food Access, Area, and Individual Income

Low Food AccessGood Food AccessP ValueLow-Income AreaHigh-Income AreaP ValueLow Individual IncomeHigh Individual IncomeP Value
Sample, n784637468953398923
Age, y49.1±1049.7±10.50.3549.± 1049.6±10.40.3848.6±10.549.8±9.90.05
Male sex, %35.340.50.0537.038.00.7339350.19
Black, %39.532.30.00651.728.6<0.0013927<0.001
Education (% distribution)0.019<0.001<0.001
 High school graduate or less12.61019.87.4313
 Some college23.218.630.416.73714
 College graduate64.171.349.875.93282
Income (% distribution)0.66<0.001
 ≤$25 0001212.722.07.6
 $25 000–$50 00018.716.525.813.7
 $50 000–$75 00017.716.718.616.6
 >$75 00051.554.133.662.1
Hypertension37.530.50.00641.430.9<0.0014232<0.001
Diabetes mellitus8.69.30.6511.47.70.029147<0.001
Hyperlipidemia53.150.30.3056.649.50.01557500.04
Heart disease3.14.10.315.72.50.005530.12
Smoking13.913.40.8120.610.3<0.001287<0.001
Medication use, %
 Hypertension treatment25.4230.1730.920.7<0.00129220.02
 Lipid treatment15.717.30.4516.116.50.9417160.53
Metabolic syndrome3026.30.1530.127.40.3128290.67
BMI, mean, kg/m229.4±7.328.3±6.70.00229.9±7.728.4±6.7<0.00130.6±8.328.2±6.2<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg122.1±17.7120.3±16.20.05123.3±19.4120.3±15.70.002124.3±20.2120.2±15.9<0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL91.7±24.291.6±19.90.8992.7±25.791.1±20.50.2194.3±27.890.8±19.80.012
Total cholesterol, mg/dL198.3±38194.9±38.20.10195.5±40.1197.3±37.10.39195.1±40.6197.9±37.10.002
LDL116.4±34112.3±330.23114.7±36114.4±320.89115.5±35.6114.7±32.40.23
HDL60.4±1861.7±180.1860.1±1861.4±180.2058.7±16.962.1±18.10.68
Triglyceride109.9±62107.3±650.45107.3±59109.4±660.57108.2±58108.3±64.50.002
Cardiovascular risk estimation
 ASCVD (IQR)2.9 (1.2–6.5)3.1 (1.1–6.5)0.724.5 (1.8–8.0)2.8 (1.2–6.4)<0.0015.1 (1.95–8.1)2.6 (1–5.9)<0.001
Inflammatory markers
 Hs-CRP, mg/L (IQR)1.6 (0.5–4.0)1.6 (0.5–3.6)0.732.1 (0.8–4.9)1.5 (0.5–3.4)<0.0012.2 (0.8–5.6)1.5 (0.5–3.4)<0.001
 Hs-CRP >2 mg/L, %43.342.80.8451.339.1<0.00151.939.9<0.001
Oxidative stress markers, µmol/L
 Glutathione1.64±0.611.66±0.610.611.56±0.601.69±0.65<0.0011.5±0.61.7±0.6<0.01
 Cystine83.9±18.484.3±18.40.4784.3±18.584.0±18.90.6984.8±19.183.7±18.50.37
Vascular function
 Pulse wave velocity, m/s7.35±1.547.29±1.500.497.51±1.87.25±1.4<0.0017.5±1.77.2±1.40.014
 Augmentation index at 75 bpm21.35±10.821.20±10.50.8122.0±11.520.9±10.20.00122.4±1220.9±9.90.018
  • High income is defined as annual income >$50 000. Low income is defined as annual income <$50 000. Values shown are mean±SDs or number (%) for normally distributed variables or median (IQR) for non-normally distributed variables. Bold values indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05). ASCVD indicates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adults; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IQR, interquartile range; and LDL, low-density lipoprotein.