Table 2.

Estimated Adjusted Differences in Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Function According to the Status of Food Deserts, Food Access, Area Income, and Individual Income

Estimated Difference (96% Confidence Interval)
Food Desert vs Non–food DesertLow Food Access vs Good Food AccessLow-Income Area vs High-Income AreaLow Individual Income vs High Individual Income
Inflammatory markers
 Hs-CRP, %5 (−11.8 to 25.2)−6.6 (−16.9 to 5.1)13.8 (1 to 29.3)*20.7 (5.1 to 38.7)*
Oxidative stress markers, µmol/L
 Glutathione−0.12 (−0.22 to −0.02)*0.003 (−0.07 to 0.07)−0.10 (−0.18 to −0.03)*−0.10 (−0.18 to −0.02)*
 Cystine0.377 (−2.49 to 3.25)−0.57 (−2.53 to 1.40)−0.49 (−2.60 to 1.63)−0.74 (−1.54 to 3.03)
Vascular function
 Pulse wave velocity, m/s−0.02 (−0.29 to 0.25)0.09 (−0.08 to 0.25)0.06 (−0.12 to 0.25)0.19 (−0.02 to 0.40)
 Augmentation index at 75 bpm1.47 (0.12 to 2.83)*−0.47 (−1.39 to 0.46)0.43 (−0.59 to 1.45)1.89 (0.80 to 2.99)*
Cardiovascular risk estimation
 ASCVD, %14 (6.4 to 22.1)*0.5 (−4.2 to 5.3)10.2 (4.5 to 16.2)*15.1 (8.7 to 22.1)*
  • Percent difference was reported for Hs-CRP. Multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex, race, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, body mass index, and heart disease. ASCVD indicates atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adults; and Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

  • * P<0.05.