Table 4.

Multivariate Analysis of Area Characteristics/Individual Income and Measures of Inflammation, Arterial Stiffness, Glutathione, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

LogCRP, β (CI)AI, β (CI)PWV, m/s, β (CI)Glutathione, β (CI)Cystine, β (CI)LogASCVD, β (CI)
Model 1
 Low individual income0.16 (0.01 to 0.30)*1.56 (0.51 to 2.75)*0.14 (−0.08 to 0.35)−0.08 (−0.16 to 0.005)0.94 (−1.42 to 3.30)0.29 (0.17 to 0.41)*
 Low-income area0.10 (−0.04 to 0.24)0.30 (−0.78 to 1.38)0.14 (−0.07 to 0.34)−0.09 (−0.17 to −0.008)*−0.42 (−2.74 to 1.90)0.14 (0.02 to 0.25)*
 Low food access−0.04 (−0.16 to 0.09)−0.40 (−1.37 to 0.56)0.09 (0.09 to 0.26)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.06)−0.83 (−2.94 to 1.28)−0.01 (−0.11 to 0.09)
Model 2
 Interaction term: (individual income × area income)−0.14 (−0.42 to 0.13)0.59 (−1.58 to 2.77)−0.25 (−0.67 to 0.18)0.05 (−0.11 to 0.21)−4.35 (−8.94 to 0.25)0.04 (−0.08 to 0.15)
Model 3
 Interaction term: (individual income × food access)0.011 (−0.26 to 0.28)2.7 (0.56 to 4.74)*0.14 (−0.26 to 0.55)−0.06 (−0.21 to 0.10)3.79 (−0.65 to 8.22)−0.04 (−0.15 to 0.08)
Model 4
 Interaction term: (area income × food access)§0.002 (−0.26 to 0.26)3.02 (0.99 to 5.05)*−0.27 (−0.66 to 0.12)−0.09 (−0.24 to 0.06)2.54 (−1.86 to 6.95)0.10 (0.0 to 0.21)
  • Multivariate analyses controlling age, sex, race, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, BMI, and heart disease except for ASCVD. Standardized β coefficient displayed with P value. AI indicates augmentation index; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adults; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; and PWV, pulse wave velocity.

  • * Statistically significant difference (P<0.05).

  • Model 2 included variables in model 1+the interaction term.

  • Model 3 included model 1+the interaction term.

  • § Model 4 included model 1+the interaction term.