Table 2.

Hazard Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for Incident Heart Failure per 1 Interquartile Range Increase in Deprivation Index, Overall and by Race

Overall (n=26 818)Whites (n=8303)Blacks (n=18 515)
Model 11.14 (1.09–1.19)1.34 (1.21–1.47)1.09 (1.04–1.15)
Model 21.15 (1.09–1.20)1.27 (1.14–1.41)1.12 (1.06–1.18)
Model 31.12 (1.07–1.18)1.20 (1.07–1.34)1.10 (1.04–1.17)
  • Model 1: includes deprivation index, age (restricted cubic splines with 4 knots), race, and sex. Model 2: model 1+smoking (never, former, current <19.5 pack-years, current ≥19.5 pack-years), alcohol intake (linear) and total physical activity in MET-h (linear+quadratic)+body mass index (restricted cubic splines with 4 knots), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high cholesterol, history of myocardial infarction, and history of stroke (all yes/no). Model 3: model 2+annual household income (<$15 000, $15 000–$24 999, ≥$25 000) and education (<high school, high school/vocational training/junior college, ≥college). P value for deprivation index×race interaction=0.0005 (model 1). Intraclass correlation coefficient=4.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.6–6.4).