Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics of SCCS Participants Receiving Medicare or Medicaid During Follow-Up Between 2002 and 2010, Overall and by Tertile* of Deprivation Index

Deprivation Index
OverallTertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3
Deprivation index (range)0.85 (−2.4 to 6.0)−0.76 (−2.4 to −0.3)0.03 (−0.3 to 0.4)1.61 (0.4 to 6.0)
Census tracts, n4666155615551555
Participants, n26 8184256647816 084
Age, y (SD)55.5 (10.4)58.1 (10.7)56.8 (10.4)54.2 (10.1)
Women, %62.760.064.662.6
Blacks, %69.037.349.885.2
Education, %
 <High school38.625.536.442.9
 HS/Junior college/VT53.157.055.051.3
 ≥College degree8.317.58.65.8
Annual income, %
 <$15 00069.953.365.076.2
 $15 000–$24 99917.918.220.616.8
 ≥$25 00012.228.514.47.0
Smoking, %
 Never34.734.636.633.9
 Former25.232.728.422.0
 Current40.132.735.044.2
Alcohol intake, %
 0 drink per day55.053.662.152.5
 >0–2 drinks per day33.136.829.833.5
 >2 drinks per day11.99.68.114.0
Physical exercise, MET-h/d, (SD)0.87 (2.3)1.13 (2.6)0.77 (2.1)0.85 (2.3)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD)30.4 (7.8)29.9 (7.4)30.7 (7.7)30.4 (7.9)
BMI categories, %
 Underweight, BMI <18.51.71.41.61.8
 Lean, BMI 18.5–<25.024.024.621.324.9
 Overweight, BMI 25–<30.029.532.530.428.4
 Obese, BMI ≥30.044.841.546.745.0
Diabetes mellitus, %26.524.528.126.4
Hypertension, %62.558.463.463.3
High cholesterol, %39.545.344.335.9
History of MI, %8.610.010.17.6
History of stroke, %9.69.49.99.5
  • Other than for stroke (P=0.66), all comparisons between tertiles of neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) were significant (P<0.0001). BMI indicates body mass index; HS, high school; MI, myocardial infarction; SCCS, Southern Community Cohort Study; and VT, vocational training.

  • * Tertile cut points were based on the distribution of NDI at the census tract level (not individuals). The third tertile is the most deprived, whereas tertile 1 is the least deprived. The inequality in the number of individuals per tertile of NDI is explained in part by the significant variation in the number of persons per census tract and the fact that census tracts with higher deprivation had more individuals per census tract.

  • Physical exercise=total moderate and vigorous exercise.